E-mail basics

Email is a service which allows us to send the message in electronic mode over the internet. It offers an efficient, inexpensive and real time mean of distributing information among people. E-Mail Address Each user of email is assigned a unique name for his email account. This name is known as E-mail address. Different users can send and receive messages according to the e-mail address. E-mail is generally of the form username@domainname . For example, is an e-mail address where aijazmit is username and is domain name. •          The username and the domain name are separated by  @ (at)  symbol. •          E-mail addresses are not case sensitive. •          Spaces are not allowed in e-mail address. E-mail Message Components E-mail message comprises of different components: E-mail Header, Greeting, Text, and Signature. These components are described in the following diagram: •       E-mail Header The first five lines of an E-mail message is c

Internet Concepts

  URL Stands for "Uniform Resource Locator." A URL is the address of a specific  webpage  or  file  on the Internet. For example, the URL of the TechTerms website is "" The address of this page is "" and includes the following elements: http://  – the URL prefix, which specifies the  protocol  used to access the location  – the  server  name or  IP address  of the server /definition/url  – the  path  to the directory or file WWW (World Wide Web), Which is also known as a Web, is a collection of websites or web pages stored in web servers and connected to local computers through the internet. These websites contain text pages, digital images, audios, videos, etc. Users can access the content of these sites from any part of the world over the internet using their devices such as computers, laptops, cell phones, etc. Web server  is a computer


The Internet is a  global network  of billions of computers and other electronic devices. With the Internet, it's possible to access almost any information, communicate with anyone else in the world, and do much more. You can do all of this by connecting a computer to the Internet, which is also called  going   online.  When someone says a computer is   online, it's just another way of saying it's connected to the Internet. What is the Web? The  World Wide Web —usually called the  Web  for short—is a collection of different  websites  you can access through the Internet. A  website  is made up of related text, images, and other resources. Websites can resemble other forms of media—like newspaper articles or television programs—or they can be interactive in a way that's unique to computers. The purpose of a website can be almost anything: a news platform, an advertisement, an online library, a forum for sharing images, or an educational site like us! Uses of Internet

Hardware and Software Requirements for Internet connection

  Hardware Requirement: To connect the Internet, any one of the following is mandatory. Modem is used to connect Internet through Telephone connection. NIC- Network Interface Card (wired/ wireless) facility is the most important hardware required to connect Internet. For example, the Laptop can be connected Internet through the wired/wireless. Dongle is used to connect the Internet using cellular network Wi-Fi router or Hotspot is used to connect the Internet using wireless network Electronic device which supports cellular network Internet Connectivity such as Dial-up connection, ISDN, DSL, Cable TV, wired and wireless (Cellular) Network. Software Requirement The operating system should support TCP (Transfer Control Protocol) / IP (Internet Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) and HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secured) protocols. Browsers and other Internet clients access to the web applications suc

Social Networking

  Ø   Definition : - The process of creating, building, and nurturing virtual communities and relationships between people online. Ø   Information : - Social networking revolves allows like-minded individuals to be in touch with each other using websites and web-based applications. Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and LinkedIn are examples of social networking sites. Most Popular Social Media Sites •       Facebook •       Twitter •       LinkedIn •       Youtube •       Instagarm •       Tumblr •       Flicker •       Snapchat •       Whatsapp •       Quora •       Tiktok •       Vimeo •       Viber •       WeChat Social Networking Risks and challenges Illegal Content •       Footage of real or simulated violence, accidents, or criminal activity. •       Sexually explicit images, including those of child sexual abuse •       Content that promotes extreme political views, potentially used for radicalizing vulnerable people •       Materials that pro

Security: Firewall and Antivirus

  Ø   Security related to the protection which includes systems security, network security and application and information security. Ø   Firewall  is a barrier between Local Area Network (LAN) and the Internet. It allows keeping private resources confidential and minimizes the security risks. It controls network traffic, in both directions. Ø   Firewall is the specified version of router. In this all data packets are entering or leaving the network pass through firewall and after examine firewall decide whether to allow or not. Ø   In firewall all traffic must pass through it and only authorized traffic should be allow to pass. Firewall should be strong. Ø   The following diagram depicts a sample firewall between LAN and the internet. The connection between the two is the point of vulnerability. Both hardware and the software can be used at this point to filter network traffic. Antivirus Ø   A virus can be defined as a malicious program that attaches itself to a host program

Cyber Security Introduction

Cybersecurity is primarily about people, processes, and technologies working together to encompass the full range of threat reduction. Cybersecurity is the protection of Internet-connected systems, including hardware, software, and data from cyber attacks. It is made up of two words one is  cyber  and other is  security . Cyber is related to the technology which contains systems, network and programs or data. Whereas  security  related to the protection which includes systems security, network security and application and information security. It is the body of technologies, processes, and practices designed to protect networks, devices, programs, and data from attack, theft, damage, modification or unauthorized access. It may also be referred to as information technology security.   Why is cyber security important? We live in a digital era which understands that our private information is more vulnerable t